Seven gods who decree. Retrieved 4 June Miscellaneous Babylonian inscriptions, p. Retrieved 23 May Sumerian texts of varied contents, p. The University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 3 June Librairie orientaliste, Paul Geuthner. Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Texts, 12, 13, 14 and Neue Folge, 4 18, 4 19, 4 21, 4 20, 4 22, 4 23, 4 24 and 4 Journal of Near Eastern studies, pl.
Sumerian literary texts from Nippur: American Schools of Oriental Research. Retrieved 28 May Sumerian literary tablets and fragments in the archeological museum of Istanbul-I, 81, 95, , , , , , and Joint expedition to Mesopotamia; Pennsylvania University. Harold Ellens; Deborah L. Knierim; Isaac Kalimi God's Word for Our World: Biblical studies in honor of Simon John De Vries.
Continuum International Publishing Group. The Oxford handbook of the elegy. The lamentation over the destruction of Sumer and Ur. Gender reversals and gender cultures: Alexander 1 December The Targum of Lamentations. Tsouras 24 October The Book of Military Quotations. Retrieved from " https: Sumerian texts Clay tablets Mesopotamian mythology Mythological mountains Mythological cosmologies Comparative mythology Ur.
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Ninlil has abandoned that house, the Ki-ur, and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold.
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The queen of Kesh has abandoned it and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. Ninmah has abandoned that house Kesh and has let the breezes haunt her sheepfold. Alas, storm after storm swept the Land together: The good house of the lofty untouchable mountain, E-kic-nu-jal, was entirely devoured by large axes. The people of Cimacki and Elam, the destroyers, counted its worth as only thirty shekels.
The first lines of the lament were discovered on the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology catalogue of the Babylonian section, tablet numbers , , and from their excavations at the temple library at Nippur. These were translated by George Aaron Barton in and first published as "Sumerian religious texts" in Miscellaneous Babylonian Inscriptions , number six, entitled "A prayer for the city of Ur ".
Barton noted that "from the portions that can be translated it appears to be a prayer for the city of Ur at a time of great danger and distress. It seems impossible to assign it with certainty to any particular period. Edward Chiera published other tablets CBS , , , , , , and in "Sumerian texts of varied contents" in , which combined with tablets CBS , , , , and to further restore the myth, calling it a "Lamentation over the city of Ur".
Other translations were made from tablets in the Nippur collection of the Museum of the Ancient Orient in Istanbul Ni.
Samuel Noah Kramer amongst others worked to translate several others from the Istanbul collection including Ni , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and Other tablets and versions were used to bring the myth to its present form with a composite text by Miguel Civil produced in and latest translations by Thorkild Jacobsen in and Joachim Krecher in The lament is composed of four hundred and thirty eight lines in eleven kirugu sections , arranged in stanzas of six lines. It describes the goddess Ningal , who weeps for her city after pleading with the god Enlil to call back a destructive storm.
Interspersed with the goddess's wailing are other sections, possibly of different origin and composition; these describe the ghost town that Ur has become, recount the wrath of Enlil's storm, and invoke the protection of the god Nanna Nergal or Suen against future calamities.
Lament for Ur
Ningal, the wife of the moon god Nanna, goes on to recall her petition to the leaders of the gods, An and Enlil to change their minds and not to destroy Ur. The council of gods decide that the Ur III dynasty, which had reigned for around one hundred years, had its destiny apportioned to end. The temple treasury was raided by invading Elamites and the centre of power in Sumer moved to Isin, while control of trade in Ur passed to several leading families of the city.
Kenneth Wade suggested that Terah , the father of Abraham in the Book of Genesis could have been one of the heads of such a leading family Genesis The different temples throughout the land are described with their patron gods or goddesses abandoning the temples, like sheepfolds:. Greenstein has noted the emptying of sheep pens as a metaphor of the destruction of the city.
He also notes that the speakers of the laments are generally male lamentation-priests, who take on the characteristics of a traditional female singer and ask for the gods to be appeased so the temples can be restored. Then a goddess, sometimes accompanied by a god notes the devastation and weeps bitterly with a dirge about the destructive storm and an entreats to the gods to return to the sanctuaries. The destruction of the Elamites is compared in the myth to imagery of a rising flood and raging storm.
This imagery is facilitated by the title of Enlil as the "god of the winds"  The following text suggests that the setting of the myth was subject to a destructive storm prior to its final destruction: Various buildings are noted to be destroyed in Enlil's storm, including the shrines of Agrun-kug and Egal-mah, the Ekur the sanctuary of Enlil , the Iri-kug, the Eridug and the Unug. Images of what was lost, and the scorched earth that was left behind indicate the scale of the catastrophe. The Line reads.
The destruction of the location is reported to Enlil, and his consort Ninlil, who are praised and exalted at the end of the myth. The Lament for Ur has been well known to scholarship and well edited for a long time. Piotr Michalowski has suggested this gave literary primacy to the myth over the Lament for Sumer and Ur , originally called the "Second Lament for Ur", which he argues was chronologically a more archaic version. Alexander compares lines seventeen and eighteen of the myth with Lamentations 2: The devastation of cities and settlements by natural disasters and invaders has been used widely throughout the history of literature since the end of the Third Dynasty of Ur.
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A stela pictured from Iraq depicts a similar destruction of a mountain house at Susa. Michelle Breyer suggested tribes of neighbouring shepherds destroyed the city and called Ur, "the last great city to fall". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Seven gods who decree. Retrieved 4 June Miscellaneous Babylonian inscriptions, p.
Retrieved 23 May Sumerian texts of varied contents, p. The University of Chicago Press. Retrieved 3 June Librairie orientaliste, Paul Geuthner. Oxford Editions of Cuneiform Texts, 12, 13, 14 and Neue Folge, 4 18, 4 19, 4 21, 4 20, 4 22, 4 23, 4 24 and 4 Journal of Near Eastern studies, pl.