Collection d Etudes Anciennes Paris A Concise History rev. Sundqvist, Freyr s offspring: Rulers and religion in ancient Svea society Uppsala , passim. Thus, the analysis of local or regional religious developments focuses on the impact of the presence of Romans or the integration into the administrative structures of the Roman empire, the analysis of transregional phenomena concentrates on their political significance.
At least, Romanization is at work, rendering government easier. Yet Romanization was a complex process. The municipal elites of Middle-Italian townships thoroughly hellenized their cities during the second century BC, thus spreading the culture of Rome s important adversaries in the Eastern Mediterranean.
However, that was no act of separation, but of Romanization. Assimilation by imitating the preferences of Roman aristocrats. I shall follow this line in my paper. Price, Religions of Rome. A Sourcebook Cambridge , f. Bendlin, Rituals or Beliefs? Imperial cult remained a highly diverse system. It not only fulfilled primarily local ends, as SIMON PRICE has shown, 10 but differed substantially between Rome, waiting for the official and posthumous consecratio, and the rest of the empire, which frequently addressed the living emperor in rituals and festivals.
Even the famous calendar of the province of Asia conventionalized the lengths of its month according to Greek calendars, thus only taking the idea of a solar calendar and its day of the New Year from the Roman system. Architecturally and ritually, the cult of the Capitoline triad, Iuppiter Optimus Maximus, Iuno and Minerva, is regarded as a significant indicator.
There is no doubt, that the Capitol was an important central symbol, as seen from within as from outside. And yet again, its realization was very unevenly distributed. Practice differed from the period of the expansion in Italy onwards.
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The monumental foundation or a grandiose later rebuilding of a colony or municipium! Price, Rituals and Power: Bendlin, Peripheral Centres Central Peripheries: Religious Communication in the Roman Empire, in: Collection Latomus Bruxelles , f. Herz, Kaiserfeste der Prinzipatszeit, in: Stuttgart in press for the spread of the Roman calendar. As in Tuscan Cosa or Bantia, a detailed reproduction of Roman institutions and religious topography might stress the Romanness or loyalty to Rome of the polity. Even minute details of Rome s range of priests had been reproduced by some Latin townships, Tibur and Lanuvium in particular, even though for different reasons.
Again, attestations of the aforementioned priests are more frequent in colonies of Roman citizens; it is impossible to say whether every colony conformed to this pattern. Given the hazards of epigraphic and archaeological transmission, any inductive reasoning could give nothing but indications about the centre s intentions.
This consequence implies another one. The knowledge of the centre s intentions will not tell us anything about peripheral reality. The problems of communication and control, the interplay of administrative and local initiatives and interurban competition would have produced very different results. These limits of knowability should be kept in mind for the rest of my paper, which is dedicated to a document found in the periphery that is more than indicative of reasoning in the centre.
Rendiconti della Classe di Scienze morali, storiche e filologiche dell Accademia dei Lincei 8. Certainly, the text is a conglomerate, composed out of norms that might be older. Cicero s De legibus, the archaizing collection of laws, dates from the 50s BC, the systematic treatises concerning religion and prominent in Varro are not much older. The surviving parts of the lex Iulia municipalis, if we identify the second part of the Tabula Heracleensis lines with this Caesarian law of 45 BC, 25 do not allow us to suppose a direct relationship to the lex Ursonensis.
The heterogenous origin of the collection of norms displayed at the south Italian city of Heraclea reveals the lack of a comprehensive law: It is the incoherence of the charter of Urso itself that speaks for a recent composition at the time of its passing as a law. When in late Flavian times, i. The same holds true for the fragments of the Flavian municipal laws. At the same time, principles of ordering are recognizable in the lex Ursonensis and reveal significant differences in comparison to the later texts M.
Beard, Cicero and Divination: The Formation of a Latin Discourse, Journal of Roman Studies 76 , , for late republican religious reasoning in general. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, Suppl. The section 64 to 72 is composed of regulations on the local definition and financing of cult , on pontiffs and augurs , the procedure for payments for ritual ingredients 69 , the organisation and financing of games , and the administration of money given to temples The three chapters on priesthoods are integrated into a frame of regulations on the financing of cult.
Pontiffs and augurs, grouped together with the preceding decurions, are again the subject in chapter It prescribes that any newly elected decurion or priest must own a residence within at least one thousand paces of the town a residence that could serve as a pledge. In chapters , games are the subject of the regulations. Here, the context is clearer. At least from chapter onwards, questions of the dignity and authority of the decurions and the magistrates are discussed. Hence three of the four chapters on games exclusively deal with the order of seats for different status groups during different types of ludi, even discussing the problems of the occasional presence of higher provincial magistrates or Roman senators and their sons Chapter describes the organisation of all kind of religious cult by the annual appointment of magistri and their control.
Religion is dealt with insofar it is public religion. There is religion outside public religion otherwise the author would not need to stress that he is talking about quae sacra fieri publice placeat, about the public cult of the colony. But this religion is not part of any regulation. To talk of religion is to talk about rituals as far as the author of the lex Ursonensis is concerned. Sacra is the most general term employed, rituals could be specified as ludi circenses and scaenici, games and plays, and even gladiatores, gladiators, sacrificia, sacrifices, and puluinaria, meals prepared for the statues of the gods.
Religion comes into focus only as part of the magistrates competence. It is, however, a primary duty, to be regulated 29 Contra Crawford , op. In the view of the lex Ursonensis, religion is not something to be instrumentalized, to be regulated or tolerated, but part of a Roman colony s magistrates business, an important part even. Priesthoods Chapters of the lex Ursonensis prescribe the institutionalization of two priesthoods, which by their names and specific regulations point to the city of Rome: Quicumque pontif ices quique augures c oloniae G enetiuae I uliae post h anc l egem datam in conlegium pontific um augurumq ue in demortui damnatiue loco h ac l ege lectus cooptatusue erit, is pontif ex augurq ue in c olonia Iul ia in conlegium pontifex augurq ue esto, ita uti qui optuma lege in quaque colon ia pontif ices auguresq ue sunt erunt.
Whichever pontiffs and whichever augurs C. Caesar, or whoever shall have founded the colony at his command, shall have appointed from the colonia, they are to be the pontiffs and they the augurs of the colonia Genetiva Iulia, and they are to be the pontiffs and the augurs in the college of pontiffs or augurs in that colony, in the same way as those who are or shall be pontiffs and augurs with the best conditions and the best status in any colony.
Concerning auspices and whatever things shall pertain to those matters, jurisdiction and right of judgment are to belong to the augurs. And those pontiffs and augurs at the games, whenever the magistrates shall give them publicly, and when those pontiffs and augurs shall perform the public sacrifices of the colonia Genetiva Iulia, are to have the right and power of wearing togae praetextae.
And those pontiffs and augurs are to have the right and power to watch games and combats of gladiators among the decurions. Whoever after the issuing of this statute shall have been chosen or coopted according to this statute as pontiffs and augurs of the colonia Genetiva Iulia into the college of pontiffs and the college of augurs in the place of a man who has died or been condemned, he is to be pontiff or augur in the colonia Iulia in the college as pontiff or augur, in the same way as those who are or shall be pontiffs and augurs with the best conditions in any colony. Nor is anyone to receive or choose in replacement or coopt into the college of pontiffs, except at a time when there shall be less than three pontiffs among those who are of the colonia Genetiva.
Nor is anyone to choose in replacement or coopt anyone into the college of augurs, except at a time when there shall be less than three augurs among those who are of the colonia Genetiva Iulia. The IIviri or prefect is so to hold and proclaim an assembly for pontiffs and augurs, whom it shall be appropriate to appoint according to this statute, in the same way as it shall be appropriate to elect or appoint or appoint in replacement a IIvir according to this statue trsl.
At first glance, the text seems to be rather straightforward. Urso is given the appearance of a Roman town by minutely transferring two of the most prestigious religious institution of the city of Rome, the augurs and pontiffs. Privilegia sacerdotum coloniae ea fere sunt, quae constat obtinuisse apud Romanos. Thus, the commentaries on this passage are concentrated on the minimizing of apparent differences, for instance with regard to the number the Roman colleges of the time of the foundation would contain fifteen or sixteen priests each or the question of the loss of the augurate in cases of damnatio.
The lex and this is my point in this paper is engaged in a dis- 31 Th. Mommsen, Lex coloniae Iuliae Genetivae urbanorum sive Ursonensis: Juristische Schriften 1 Berlin , first published: Ephemerides Epigraphica 2 , , ; Crawford , op. A proposito di Plutarco, Quaest. Publications de la Sorbonne: For the founder s of the colony, the existence of augurs and pontiffs as colonial priesthoods is a matter hallowed by tradition and universal practice. The most visible symbolic honour, the seating and the dressing at games, is regulated as well as the most important personal consequence, the exemption from military and public services.
The rest is given to a most-favoured-nation clause implying a global view on a widespread institution rather than the existence of general regulations on priesthoods in Roman colonies as envisaged by CRAWFORD. Roman pontifices and augures were not only the most prestigious of public priesthoods, but the most powerful, too. Judging priestly conduct, the religious quality of land and the gods property, last but not least about the sacral quality of the time and before the calendar reform in 45 BC intercalation, the pontiffs held a central position within the diffuse network of religious authority.
The position of the supreme pontiff, the pontificatus maximus, would develop into the most important and most visible religious function of the emperors. We learn nothing about the pontiffs. Supervision of cults and funds is given to the duoviri and the aediles, the definition of days of festivals to the decurions. The specific sacral categories of feriae and locus sacer are nowhere hinted at, the question of loca religiosa, burial places, is basically left to the magistrates ch. A direct definition of their field of activity is given for the augurs: What, however, was the like?
And what sorts of augury existed in a colony? The copying of or even parallel to the Roman auguraculum in the Roman colony of Bantia is, as far as we can see, 32 Thus, however, Crawford , op. Belgisch historisch Instituut te Rome: Studies over oude Filologie, Archeologie en Geschiedenis 39 Bruxelles Linderski, The Augural Law, in: To sum up, we do not see what the priests did at all. This is congruent, thirdly, with those modifications of Roman rules that we can observe.
I leave aside the question whether a colonial augur could lose his office unlike or like? Other differences are more decisive. At Rome, a complicated procedure was followed for the election of the candidates nominated and later coopted by the college proper. Seventeen out of thirtyfive tribes tribus , that is just a minority, were selected by lot in order to determine the succeeding priests.
Pace chapter 68, priests were selected in the same manner as magistrates. The second difference concerns the number, three instead of fifteen or sixteen members in each college. That is no attempt to reproduce original Roman practice, 39 but the restriction of the college to the very minimum of what could be called a collegium at all.
I even doubt the copying of the Roman procedure of nominatio by the college: Chapters 66 to 68 are ruling about augurs and pontiffs, not about priests. The generic term sacerdotes is never used in this 35 Torelli , op. Zum Problem der obnuntiatio, in: Historia Einzelschriften 57 Stuttgart ; L. Hermes Einzelschriften 59 Stuttgart I would prefer a more positive stance: The only instance of its application in chapter 91 concerns the public lists of decurions and sacerdotes.
The implication must be spelled out: They are, however, neither decreed nor granted any privileges. If they had any, it would be due to their quality as decurions, for example. Compared to the number of public priesthoods at Rome, this list of two items only, pontiffs and augurs, is very restrictive. Conclusion The analysis of the regulations concerning pontiffs and augurs or augurs and pontiffs in chapter 91, thus excluding a ranking of both does not reveal a slim version of the actual stance of Roman priesthoods during the late republic.
These traditional colleges are not positively used as symbols of the colony s Romanness, but they are accepted rather as unavoidable remnants of tradition. The potential political implications of the office are restricted. With regard to the structure of public cult as developed in the other chapters, these colleges are not necessary.
Against the backdrop of traditional Roman religious authority, the inclusion of the priesthoods held for life in the charter s chapters on religion does not mark an integration, but an explicit exclusion, a literal as well as metaphorical bracketing. The execution of public religion is given to annual magistri, appointed and controlled by the local council as regulated in chapter Or handled by the magistrates themselves.
It must be noticed, however, that the model of Urso only partially dominated later developments. Priestly positions, old and new, remained important in many localities. They are to be found in the fourth-century album of African Timgad, but are missing in the third-century copy of Italian Canusium. Biblioteca de las Religiones 9. Delgado, Los sacerdotes de rango local de la provincia Romana de Lusitania, Conimbriga 39 , , for Lusitania. The findings in Northern Africa ge- Religion has a firm place within the socio-political fabric of the colonia.
As public cult sacra publica it is financed and organized by the council and its magistrates the financing of the cult is the leitmotif that holds together the whole passage on religion. The concrete content of this religion is left to the local elite and its financial power.
The cult of the Capitoline triad and, to a lesser degree, Venus, presumably Genetrix, the only religious element fixed a priori, does not seem to aim at providing a focus for or island of Romanness within a foreign province. More probably, it ensures that any attempts of local magistrates to create a distinctive personal image for themselves must employ devices ludi Capitolini, so to speak symbolically related to the central government, to Rome.
The existence of a second layer of religion is rather implicitly or even negatively formulated. Priesthoods, expiation, burials and ancestor cult belong to this layer; associations might form further elements. This layer does not form an integral part of the political structure and public religion of the colony. It is by no means illegal, but it must not interfere with political activities.
The regulations concerning pontiffs and augurs attempt to transfer a traditional element of the first layer to the second layer, acknowleding and isolating this time-honoured institution of public religion at Rome. At Urso, all priesthoods are subordinated to magisterial power. Chapter 72, dealing with private donations to temples, should not be read as an extension of public guarantees for the functionning of religion, but as a regulation that religious activities at the borderline between public and private that is private donation to publicly defined cults should be kept within a spatially circumscribed in ea aede realm of religion.
Resources legally accumulated under the umbrella of religion should not be used to interfere with the larger socio-political realm. Some more general conclusions can be formulated on this basis. First, Roman imperialists, at least those, who drafted and voted the lex Ursonensis, did not aim at exporting the contents of their religion, but their concept of religion. This vision included a highly visible, public religion controlled by local political elites and a tolerance of other forms of religion and religious nerally agree: Bassignano, Il flaminato nelle province romane dell Africa.
Secondly, centrally defined or suggested religious norms were only used to orientate or reorient local elites towards the central power. The Capitoline triad and the pair of augurs and pontiffs point into two different directions. The two-layered model of religion of the lex Ursonensis shows polis religion to be an indigenous, emic concept. At the same time it reveals the narrow boundaries of the concept, thus providing arguments to limit its use as an etic, analytical concept.
Sacra publica encompass an important, but only small portion of legal, open, public religion. Fourth and last, the previous analysis implies that it will be even more difficult to detect Roman religion in the Roman empire. The presence of the Roman concept of religion and its variants, as attested by the discursive stance of the author of the lex Ursonenesis 45 is not attested by the presence of Capitolia, augures or the festival of the kalendae Ianuariae.
It might be identified by the public presence of religion, its agents and its financing, might be attested by the irrelevance of important cults and their priests. Changes might have been subtle, but they were important. In the long run, they were changing the face of the empire itself. Erfurt, Dezember Price , op.
The triumvirs are illustrative. According to ancient tradition, Mark Antony descended through Anton from Hercules, Octavian or rather Caesar through Aeneas from Venus and, interestingly, Lepidus from the Vestal Aemilia, who was condemned for unchastity. The great patrician family of the Aemilii, through the Trojan royal house, placed their origins with Jupiter, whilst the Caecilii were deemed to descend from Caeculus, a son of Vulcan who also founded Praeneste.
The theme is explored in a splendid article of Peter Wiseman, who rightfully concludes: What happened to the notion of divine or at least heroic ancestry during the empire? What was the impact of empire on this phenomenon? The impact of empire, in these instances, may be correlated to the impact of emperors. Not all of them seem to have been partial to fame acquired in republican times. Thus, according to Suetonius, Caligula destroyed the statues of Republican heroes so utterly that they could not be set up again with their inscriptions entire and: Plutarch, Antony ; Huttner, Marcus Antonius und Herakles, in: Geburtstag Stuttgart , ; , n.
Suetonius, Divus Iulius 6. Cato, Fragment 59P; Servius, Aeneid 7. Silius Italicus Punica ; T. Paris Naples , ;. Uetera familiarum insignia nobilissimo cuique ademit, Torquato torquem, Cincinnato crinem, Cn. Pompeio stirpis antiquae Magni cognomen. After all, the same emperor is said to have considered destroying the poems of Homer and removing books and busts of Virgil and Livy from libraries.
Thus, he allegedly boasted of incestuous descent from Augustus in order to deny any link to Agrippa, whose origin was deemed to be too humble. In like vein, he reacted irate when listening to some kings, who had come to Rome to pay their respects to him, disputing at dinner about the nobility of their descent. Yet, at least in one instance, there is supporting evidence. Caligula s decision to take the cognomen magnus away from Gnaeus Pompeius following the emperor s statement that it was not safe for him that anyone should be called magnus seems to be corroborated by epigraphic evidence.
By the time of Pompeius death, however, he was again allowed his cognomen magnus, as it read on his epitaph. Dio , with A. The Corruption of Power London , ; P. Pompeius Magnus in the tomb of the Licinii Crassi: Rom On the changes of Pompeius name, see especially H.
Levick, Claudius London ,. The Licinii Crassi, after all, could claim descent from both Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus images of both of whom seem to have been present in their family tomb. Claudius choices of his sons-inlaw indicate the importance he gave to high brow descent: These in-laws were, for a while, given all sorts of honours and a high profile.
This same kind of mixture of fear and respect for families with ancestral claims can already be detected in Tiberius reign. One seems to have been more likely to fall victim to a trial for high treason de maiestate , when one had a house filled with ancestor masks imagines.
Scribonius Libo Drusus and the A. Thus, famously, Aemilia Lepida, who was great-granddaughter of Sulla as well as of Pompey, entered her forebear s theatre, still named after him and: On Claudius relation to the aristocracy of Rome, see Levick , op. But hers was an exile in style, befitting one with such honourable lineage.
Under Julio-Claudian rule, lineage continued to matter. Hence, Claudius aside to the senate in A. Behold all these young men whom I am looking at. We should no more regret that they are senators than Pericus, a man of the highest lineage and my friend, is sorry to read the name Allobrogicus among the masks of his ancestors. Tot ecce insignes iuvenes, quot intueor, non magis sunt paenitendi senatores, quam paenitet Persicum, nobilissimum virum, amicum meum, inter imagines maiorum suorum Allobrogici nomen legere.
Why would he emphasise that: After all, he had moved the statues that Caligula destroyed so wholeheartedly from the Capitol to the Campus Martius to give them more room. Then again, these Republican greats were linked to Augustus Julian ancestry perhaps even to the extent that the summi viri who could not claim kinship with Augustus were segregated from the others.
On De Beneficiis and social conduct: Chioffi, Gli elogia augustei del Foro Romano Rome On the sculptural display of the Forum, see now M. Untersuchungen zu Entstehung und Ausstattung des Augustusforums Heidelberg , especially on the placement of the principes viri who were linked to the gens Iulia, and those who were not. Impressive mortal ancestry was potentially threatening to the ruling emperor.
How about divine or heroic claims? What had happened to the divine descendants? Galba s assertion is an interesting case. It can be reasonably suggested that his divine claim was consistent with a second century B. Galba was the last of the patrician Sulpicii, so it need not surprise that the ancestral claim was not repeated in later times. But, interestingly, there is no evidence that any of the Sulpicii made the claim to descent from Jupiter during the Julio-Claudian reign. Nor, in fact, does there seem to be evidence for any descendant of the great families using the divine claims which in the late republic were connected to that family, in imperial times.
La fonction fondatrice dans la tradition sur les rois de Rome, in: Hekster, Coins and Messages. Audience Targeting on Coins of Different Denominations? Epigraphic evidence does not support Suetonius claim. The prosopography is set out by Boschung , op. With moneyers no longer at real liberty to put iconographical claims forward, evidence for ideological assertions of senatorial families is much harder to trace.
It may simply be evidence that changed under the empire, not practice. Some literature indicates that the practice of creating legendary genealogies was at least well remembered in imperial times. Plutarch, in his life of Numa Pompilius mentions how: Others will have it that he left also four sons, namely, Pompo, Pinus, Calpus, and Mamercus, every one of whom had issue, and from them descended the noble and illustrious families of Pomponii, Pinarii, Calpurnii, and Mamerci, which for this reason took also the surname of Rex, or King.
But there is a set of writers who say that these pedigrees are but a piece of flattery used by writers who, to gain favour with these great families, made them fictitious genealogies from the lineage of Numa. On should, in this context, note Asclepiades of Myrlea, who about B. The latter category incorporated only one kind of history genealogy. Do not be deceived by them when they often enumerate their ancestors, and wherever there is no famous name, there they slip in a god. Still, they cannot be systematically traced. There are some glimpses, though.
Silius Italicus in his eighth book of the Punica explicitly draws the distinction between the useless consul Varro, whose birth was obscure: For through Amulius, the founder of his line, he could trace descent from Assaracus, and through Assaracus to Jupiter. Note als Herodian on Glabrio s descent. Non est, quod te isti decipiant, qui, cum maiores suos saepe recensent, ubimcumque nomen iliustre defecit, illo deum infulciunt. After all, the Aemilii had demised under the Julio-Claudians. He did not even go to the new emperor to congratulate him on his accession, which did not do him any harm, since without aiming for power, no one resented him.
It may well be relevant that the glimpses that can be detected refer to a past emperor, an aristocratic family that was no longer politically relevant and a literary critic. None of these divine claims were politically employed. It may also be 31 Silius Italicus, Punica T. Epic of the Imperial Period, in: When Vespasian came to power, an apparent attempt to make the new emperor part of the old aristocratic context failed rather dramatically.
Suetonius alludes to an exceptional and seemingly unexpected reaction by Vespasian to those who wanted to boost his descent: Indeed, when certain men tried to trace the origin of the Flavian family to the founders of Reate and a companion of Hercules, whose tomb still stands on the Via Salaria, he laughed at them for their pains. Quin et conantis quosdam originem Flavii generis ad conditores Reatinos comitemque Herculis, cuius monimentum exstat Salaria via, referre irrisit ultro.
Perhaps, since the beginning of the Empire, gods had lost some of their status. Galba s divine descent had not sufficiently strengthened his hold on power. One important aspect of rule, civilitas, did not sit well with any form of divine claim, though refusing such claims would show a ruler as the perfect civilis princeps. Balmer, Classical Women Poets Newcastle , no. Both the themes of ancestry and of human relations to gods are discussed in Statius Thebaid, but not in relation to divine ancestry: Pliny, Naturalis historia Vespasian Bristol ,.
Domitian is said to have claimed descent of a somewhat surprising divine ancestor. Philostratos life of Apollonius tells how Domitian imprisoned a magistrate from Tarentum who refused to mention Minerva as his mother in a public prayer. It may well result from deliberate or accidental misreading of the special attention that Domitian gave the goddess; probably as a divine comes, but not, it seems, as an ancestor. The important divinities whose ancestry was there for all to see were the divine Vespasian and Titus.
Celebrated in Domitian s arch of Titus, and in the Templum Gentis Flaviae, they were the real divinities to whom Domitian owed his status. There were now new gods whose ancestry counted, a new domus divina of which one wanted to form part. During the Julio-Claudian dynasty, effectively only the divine Augustus counted as an ancestor who could provide relevant status. Either one tried to emphasise familial links to Augustus or one disbanded the notion altogether. Interesting, in this light, is once again Galba, who played all ancestral cards. He stemmed from an important Republican family, made public as we have seen his lineage back to Jupiter himself, but also put Livia s portrait on his coinage, and styled himself Lucius Livius Galba.
Levick, Vespasian London , 73; B. Jones, The Emperor Titus London , Suetonius, Domitianus 5; Girard, Domitien et Minerve: Carradice, Coinage and Finance in the Reign of Domitian. Series , ; 55 n. Davies, Death and the Emperor. It seems that when the emperorship further developed itself, divine ancestry other than dynastic divine claims lost impetus as a political tool. The attention in our sources to the presence and absence of ancestor masks of the divine members of the ruling house in funerary processions emphasises the point.
Caesar s mask was publicly prevented from being used at such occasions as gods could not have imagines. Indeed, during Augustus funerary pomp, Caesar s imagino was absent though Romulus was put on display. Likewise, the divus Augustus was prevented from having an imago. Vespasian s mask, however, may have been carried along in his own funerary procession.
At his [Vespasian s] funeral, Favor, a leading mime, who wore his mask and according to custom imitated the actions and words of the deceased during his lifetime, having asked the procurator in a loud voice how much his funerary procession would cost, hearing the reply 10 million sesterces cried out: Give me a hundred thousand and fling me into the Tiber.
Yet, whatever the exact context of these statements, or indeed their trustworthiness, it is evident that the notions of divinity, ancestry and public display became closely linked to the imperial household. With continuing sacralisation of emperorship over the cen- 47 Dio, ; Dio, Based on the above evidence, then, it appears that divine genealogies no longer served an ostensibly political use for senatorial families during the principate. Perhaps other evidence can be employed to support the notion. Firstly, the iconography on sarcophagi.
As Hennig Wrede expertly analysed years ago, during the empire the concept of consecratio in forma deorum arose. Individuals, in death, characterised themselves through divine attributes. Importantly, the vast majority of these depictions concern libertini, their wives and children. Hennig herself already noted that it must have been easier for those who could not take up a magistracy to make divine associations publicly visible. As a result, the inscription of a cursus honorum the qualifications in life became the new model. Pliny talks at some length about the difference between contemporary displays of art, and the way the atria of old used to look: The tablina archive rooms were filled with ledgers of records and deeds done by office holders.
Wrede, Consecratio in Formam Deorum. Wrede, Senatorische Sarkophage Roms. Eck, Senatorial Self Representation, in: Seven Aspects Oxford , ; Perhaps the absence of divine representations in the above mentioned tomb of the Licinii Crassi ought to be seen in this light. Of course, these examples somewhat cross boundaries between divine ancestry and personal divinity; which is a different subject altogether, although the developments might well run parallel.
Carey, Pliny s Catalogue of Culture. The well-known late antique practice of emphasising, and even fabricating, relationships with Rome s most fashionable gentes, or indeed the notion of appropriation of ancient aristocratic prestige through buying domus for reputed ancestral links, demonstrates, of course, that at least the perception of ancestry continued to matter. With an emperor to impress, who needed gods? Hillner, Domus, Family and Inheritance.
Jacques, L ordine senatorio attraverso la crisi del III secolo, in: Lineage and Roman Imperial Ideology. I hope to address some obvious omissions from this paper, such as the use of lineage by Greek-speaking elites, at a later stage. Needless to say, they are not responsible for any remaining flaws. Much attention has been given to attempts of Augustus to limit luxury, to control manumissions, and to encourage the procreation of citizens. On the whole much less scholarly attention has been devoted to problem of religious renewal.
Here the concern is not so much with the problem of belief, but rather with the role of formal religion in the development of a new self identity for patriotic individuals and loyal cities in the in Roman Empire. Specifically, I would like to argue here that the example set by Augustus for pietas Image 1: Augustus veiled 1 and benefaction was to a considerable degree followed by the elites of the cities of Italy especially and of the Empire. Just as Augustus held the highest offices in the constitutional order and served as a member of all the priestly colleges, so too did the leading members of the Roman communities accept similar offices, honors and functions in their patriae and in their client communities.
Just as Augustus worked as a benefactor of Rome, so too did the local elites serve as patrons and benefactors of their own communities. I am not of course the first to argue that these services were significant, what I do wish to explore is how the components built a coherent whole. In what follows I would like to review the basics of what we may label the Augustan model first in respect to Augustus behavior and then broaden the investigation to include behavior of senators, equestrians and decurions. There are, however, some words of caution about the limits of this investigation: Are we speaking of patronage as a universal concept or of a particularly formal and Roman institution?
It is easy, and often confusing, to allow oneself to cross the line on this point, but patrocinium was a very flexible institution with many nuances; indeed though we may identify some general rules, there were as many local variations as there were cities in the Empire. Even so, one needs to be candid about which perspective is relevant at each step of the argument. Augustus was never called patron of Rome, either of the city or of the empire. After he became pater patriae, there may have been no need for the title. On the other hand, Velleius claims that Tiberius was the patronus perpetuus of the Empire and that Dio states the same about Caesar.
Specifically, there is no reason to believe that Tiberius was ever formally given such a title, yet it was evident to some Romans that his position was at least analogous to such a status. Moreover, and in contrast to Augustus, Tiberius never accepted the title of pater 3 For a different perspective, see Claude Eilers introductory chapter in Roman Patrons of Greek Cities Oxford Eo die ara Pacis Aug. For these and for all his [Caesar s] other acts of legislation and reconstruction, great in themselves, but likely to be deemed small in comparison with those others which I need not recount in detail, you loved him as a father and cherished his as a benefactor, you exalted him with such honors as you bestowed on no one else and desired him to be continual patron prostates of the city and of the whole domain.
Velleius Paterculus uses similar language to describe Tiberius s status in the last years of the Augustan Principate: On these events the defeat of Varus , [Tiberius] Caesar, the constant patron of the Roman empire perpetuus patronus imperii Romani , hurried to his father The mechanism by which patterns of behavior associated with moral renewal were transmitted to members of the senate and from them down to equestrians and decurions remains to some decree uncertain. Clearly there was no mandate or as best we can tell any formal recommenddation.
Three forces may be at work: These concepts will be discussed below. In what follows, I want to focus on two aspects of the Augustan model that are most relevant to the practice of civic ritual and civic patronage in the communities of the empire, namely on the role patrons in those rituals of a religious character.
Paul Zanker in Power of Images has shown in some detail how Augustus operated to encourage the reform of ritual and religion. The civic and ritual calendars were filled with events of religious significance commemorating especially though not exclusively the achievements of the imperial house. Prayers, sacrifices, processions, and feasts all served to place the emperor and his family at the center of Roman civic religion. All of these features are vividly displayed on the ara pacis: The annual celebrations of such events served to reinforce these connections.
There are several official and annual celebrations or feriae associated with the Ara Pacis Augustae: July 4 th commemorating the placing of the cornerstone, and January 30 th, for the 7 I cannot make the case here, but suspect that reference in Velleius might have been a trial balloon to profile Tiberius. Given the sums involved in these restorations, repairs and new structures, he clearly believed that such an investment was useful and indeed efficacious.
He surely wished to be foster the idea that Rome ruled by serving the gods. Aurelius sacrificing , Augustus let it be known that he placed a high value on this service. To reinforce the importance, the priesthoods, life-long appointments, were given to those of the highest rank and best families.
Tacitus notes the case of the disappointed candidates who considered their failure to receive a promised appointment to be the equivalent to a death sentence. As I am sensible, Sir, that the highest applause my actions can receive is to be distinguished by so excellent a prince, I beg you would be graciously pleased to add either the office of augur or septemvir both which are now vacant to the dignity I already enjoy by your indulgence; that I may have the satisfaction of publicly offering up those vows for your prosperity, from the duty of my office, which I daily prefer to the gods in private, from the affection of my heart.
My advancement to the dignity of augur is an honor that justly indeed merits your congratulations; not only because it is highly honorable to receive, even in the slightest instances, a testimony of the approbation of so wise and discreet a prince, but because it is, moreover, an ancient and religious institution, which has this sacred and peculiar privilege annexed to it, that it is for life Also Ovid, Fasti I Horace, Carmina I am primarily concerned with the municipal priesthoods, including the flamines perpetui as well as the cults established for individual emperors at the local level.
The latter were common throughout Italy and are to be found in provincial cities as well. But for senators in general the appointment typically came late in one s career, as a kind of capstone. When we turn to Roman cities, we also find that there is a high correlation between municipal patrons of the decurial and equestrian orders, priests especially of the imperial cults and quinquennales.
Indeed, at the local level, patronage, priesthoods and high office both civic and imperial are all closely associated. Bear in mind that this table may be somewhat misleading. If the pattern articulated above holds, then the priestly office might well come very late in life. Moreover, and as a check on our data, we have a complete list of patrons and magistrates of Canusium in southeastern Italy from the early third century.
Of these four are quinquennales three in Canusium, one in a neighboring town ; one is an aedile and presumably younger. It was only several years later that he became an augur. Sherwin-White, The Letters of Pliny the Younger Oxford , The higher the rank of the patron, the less likely he would be a native, and therefore the less likely he would be to hold local office. In general, decurions appear more often as primus pilus; while equestrians appear as tribuni or praefecti. D The album and its contents have been discussed in many contexts, in general, M.
Salway, Prefects, patroni, and Decurions: A New Perspective on the album of Canusium, in: The last is the brother of a praefectus Aegypti. Eleven quinquennales are recorded on the inscription seven elected; four are adlecti , suggesting that patronal status with eight entries was more selective than quinquennial. Priesthoods are not listed on the album. The 4 th century album 20 of Thamugadi records its members in this order: These arguments make it quite clear that the accumulation of titles patronus, flamen and quinquennalis were extended to only a very exclusive group of equestrians.
So much is also confirmed by the fact that most of these individuals also held important positions in the imperial service. They were then individuals who must have performed or were expected to perform exceptional services for their communities even if we do not know what those services might have been. The fact that patrons and priests included individuals who had reached lower offices [as happens on both of the alba] is not an argument against this thesis. The individuals in question may have been coopted for expected rather than actual benefits as certainly applies to Pliny whose case I will discuss below and not yet have reached the higher offices.
The important point is this: They were responsible for the regulation of sacrifices and ceremonies, for dedications and consecrations Images 6ae ; they managed the calendar and pontifical archives; and had some legal 20 CIL VIII, A. Chastagnol, L album municipal de Timgad Bonn , ; D. As augur, Pliny writes, I may have the satisfaction of publicly offering up those vows for your prosperity, from the duty of my office, which I daily prefer to the gods in private, from the affection of my heart.
Similar focus on the emperor and on the members of the imperial house may also be seen in the records of the Arval Brethren. Approximately half of all patrons and priests were also flamines. Cults honoring Augustus, Claudius, Vespasian, Titus, Trajan, Hadrian, Pius are all recorded on the same inscriptions that record civic patronage. On some occasions, such sacrifices involved victims, but on other ones wine and incense may have been sufficient.
It seems reasonable to conclude that priests at all levels participated in or administered sacrifices on behalf of the emperor and his family, that their role was a very public one, and that they may have been responsible for providing the sacrificial victims and for sponsoring the social events public banquets: In respect to benefaction and patronage, let us consider also the pattern of temple construction among the elite. As Zanker notes, Augustus had reserved this task for himself in Rome, but throughout Italy and the provinces there was ample opportunity to emulate Augustus.
In this case too, Pliny offers a splendid example of how a senator and patron of an Italian community could emulate Augustus and construct a temple for the benefit of a client community. The people always celebrate my arrivals, regret my departures, and rejoice in my official titles, and so to express my gratitude one always feels disgraced at being outdone in friendly feeling I defrayed the cost of building a temple in the town. As this is now completed, it would be a sacrilegious to postpone its dedication any longer.
Emulation of Augustus may not be explicit, but the analogies are readily apparent. Note that the celebration of Pliny s comings and goings resembles the celebrations on the Roman calendar, for example, October 12 th, commemorating the return of Augustus from the overseas provinces, or the accounts in Tacitus and Suetonius of how the whole population went out to greet a returning emperor. Epigraphical evidence simply does not provide much indication of a connection between civic patronage and the construction of buildings of a religious character.
Indeed of cases I have collected, the construction of temples is mentioned twice e. Benefactions temples buildings other ob merita no mention dec equ Does this mean that members of the elite did not build temples or even confer material benefactions? Duncan-Jones notes that 23 cases in Italy of miscellaneous building works and restorations where we have specific information on the amount spent.
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Of those 22 cases, 7 were related to the construction of bathing facilities and 6 to temples the remaining involve the construction of porticos, roads, and other structures. An additional case involves the benefaction of an altar, but it is not clear whether it was for public or private purposes. I am indebted to Johannes Hahn for pursing this issue.
Whether there are two cases or eight does not significantly alter the line of the argument. In Africa, he identifies 76 structures, of which 28 have some religious significance. The conundrum, namely that there is very little direct evidence to support a connection between formal patrocinium and benefaction, has been a major problem for many scholars who have studied formal civic patronage. The literary evidence about Augustus and his successors and the official propaganda e. Moreover, the literary evidence emphasizes the power of emulation. Consider the statement of Tacitus on moral reform: The new men who were often admitted into the Senate from the towns, colonies and even the provinces, introduced their household thrift But the chief encourager of strict manners was Vespasian, himself old-fashioned both in his dress and in his diet.
Henceforth a respectful feeling towards the prince and a love of emulation proved more efficacious than legal penalties or terrors. Agricola gave private encouragement and public aid to the building of temples, courts of justice and dwelling-houses, praising the energetic, and reproving the indolent. Thus an honorable rivalry took the place of compulsion. This pattern of emulation, Zanker has shown, may also be seen in the visual arts. But if these arguments have any validity, how are we to explain the dearth of epigraphical data explicitly linking formal patronage with benefaction?
Eilers recent book on civic patronage argues that patronage in the Principate was in decline, the fact that we have such minimal evidence on benefaction demonstrates that patrons simply were not the benefactors we might have expected. While it cannot be proven as directly as one might like, I do think there are several considerations that suggest that patrons and communities did not like to list specific benefactions.
First, the focus of Eilers study is on the formal patronage of Greek communities in the late middle and late republic. Such relationships virtually disappeared under Augustus. Whatever the nature of the benefactions conferred or anticipated, temple building and cult in the Augustan sense surely were not in the forefront i. Second, comparative studies of patronage have demonstrated that the lack of specificity in respect to benefaction is a characteristic phenomenon of the institution. That is regarding the latter , communities might use honors in general and that of patronage specifically to generate a sense of obligation in the patron, as ILS puts it in respect to the cooption of Pomponius Bassus that as patron he would assist Ferentinum, the client community vir auxilio sit futurus municipio nostro in clientelam amplissimae domus suae municipium nostrum recipere.
In this case, the client community could not specify services because it hoped to secure many advantages over the longer-term. Alternatively, if the honor were used discretely, it could also serve as a reward or incentive for a series of benefactions; Seneca 35 and Pliny 36 offer many examples. Clearly, the status and the wealth of the patron, actual or potential, were significant factors in both scenarios but in the former, benefactions could not be specified. Patrons may have been ready to confer benefactions, but clearly could not meet all expectations.
Roniger, Patrons, Clients and Friends Cambridge , ff. So much is also indicated in the tabulae patronatus the formal text of cooption , which typically stress that the relationship should extend to future generations, J. On the former inscription, however, we learn that he had given Herculaneum its gate, walls and basilica, significant benefactions by any standard, but the text does not refer to him as patronus. There appears to be a tendency to avoid specific reference to benefactions in connection with inscriptions referring to patroni. We may guess at a reason: Because the title was prestigious, communities did not want to suggest that it could be had for a specific price, for example, for funding of a temple.
Rather, they wished to stress the continuing nature of benefaction and obligation as Pliny and Seneca indicate, see above. Allow me to mention here one other well known example of this phenomenon. Calpurnius Fabatus was the grandfather in law of Pliny; he had a successful career as an equestrian officer as praefectus and tribunus in a number of legions and cohorts, became IIIIvir iure dicundo in his patria of Comum. He was also flamen of Augustus and patron of his city. Characteristically and important for our purposes , Pliny urges Fabatus to continue his generosity. If this pattern has any general validity, then we may have to conclude that at least some of the many of the benefactors recorded on Latin inscriptions may also have been formal patrons; at the same time, we must also be aware that the reference to benefactions and achievements does not alone demonstrate the existence of formal patronage.
Conclusions based then on lists of patrons will inevitably be more tenuous than one might wish. Even so, let us extend the argument a bit further. As noted above, Duncan-Jones found that a quarter of public benefactions involved religions structures of some kind, suggesting that patrons too may have devoted a similar proportion to structures of a religious character.
Did Pliny confer a benefaction on his patria similar to the one he gave to Tifernum? To judge by the two alba patrons were given a special place at the head of the decurions and presumably enjoyed the same priority at official functions. Specifically, as significant numbers of civic patrons were also quinquennales and priests in the civic cults and had held leading positions in the imperial equestrian service, we may indeed identify a four-legged chair that allowed the leading men in the communities to play a highly visible role in the public, civic, and ritual life of their communities. If we cannot be certain about the exact nature of the benefactions provided, at the very least this combination served to generate and support civic benevolentia by cultivating an honorable rivalry.
In sum, I believe patrons provided their communities with a range of benefactions. Legal services, access to the court and the senate, mediation are all recorded activities. Moreover, even if there is no direct connection made, patrons also provided benefactions in the form of civic buildings inter alia, the construction of markets, porticos, roads, altars, temples and the support of other ritual events in the civic calendar. Of course, one does not have to be the formal patron of a community to provide such benefactions, but communities, the literary evidence 40 suggests that the latter used the honor as a way to encourage benefaction.
Fundamentally I am reluctant to speculate on such issues over the longer eras of Roman history, but we may conclude this investigation with the following observation. Patronage and civic religion in the Early Republic may have little to do with the practice of either in the time of Augustus. So it is with some caution that I mention the following.
Peter Brown makes a compelling case for a connection between the local elites, civic patrons, bishops and the cult of patron saints in the practice of late Roman Christianity. Functionally, the cult of the saints and the cult of the emperors were not that far removed from one another. Indeed, the primary duty of the local patron and bishop 39 Another example of this phenomenon is A. Brown, The Cult of the Saints Chicago , ; more generally, chapters 2 and 3. Eugene Oregon , December. Ara pacis, flamen in the procession of senators. Ara pacis, overview of procession and of Italia.
Augustus functioning as a priest. The case of M. These identifications are generally studied at the level of naming not least because most easily collected evidence for them is linguistic, namely, the epigraphically-attested use of theonyms as appellatives. What is more, many argue that the central interest of interpretationes lies more or less exclusively in the act of naming, and not in the act of identification, and that interpretatio itself is therefore a phenomenon in the linguistic-conceptual realm.
It is my object in this note to suggest that an inquiry into interpretatio Romana might well reveal as much about Roman gods as it does about Roman language. Indeed, the currency of these terms in religious historiography today is all the more striking for their rarity in ancient usage, in which they functioned largely within discourses on linguistic and cultural translation. Jahrhunderts heftige territorialpolitische Auseinandersetzungen stattfanden.
Ein Nachtrag stellt die Tendenzen und Entwicklungen der Stadtgeschichtsforschung seit der ersten Auflage dar; die aktualisierte Bibliographie rundet den Band ab. Deutsches Reich; Stadtgeschichte; Lehrbuch; Studienbuch. Hirschmann has prepared a revised edition of his highly praised textbook on the medieval city. The cities are examined in their full diversity from economic, social, ecclesiastical, and architectural perspectives. A supplement presents trends and developments in research on urban history since the first edition; an updated bibliography completes the volume.
German empire; urban history; textbook; study. The analysis addresses dynamic changes in legal regulations and practices along with religious, secular, technological, and economic ways of action that are predicated on geographical, linguistic, and cultural transmission. Legal history; textbook; study book; spatial turn; methodology. Der Dominikanerorden kann als mittelalterlicher Leitorden in Bezug auf Verfassung, Studium und Seelsorge verstanden werden.
Bilder spielten dabei — auch und gerade im Protestantismus — eine zentrale, bisher zu wenig beachtete Rolle. The Dominican is generally considered the preeminent monastic Order of the medieval era. This volume presents contemporary writings from various disciplinary perspectives on questions of innovation and tradition in the medieval context and considers both the Orders of friars as well as of nuns on questions of knowledge as power and on knowledge of self and the other.
Senner OP, Istituto S. In the world of the Protestant Reformation, laypersons became the bearers of new practices and forms of personal appropriation and internalization of faith. Particularly in Protestantism, images played a central but hitherto neglected role in this process. As they address this theme, the multi-disciplinary authors of this lavishly illustrated compilation repeatedly chart new territory.
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Philosophy of the Middle Ages; social history; history of science. Series Miscellanea Mediaevalia 39 Ca. It is intended to help overcome the academic division of a diverse tradition, bearing witness to the same inseparable contexts expressed in manifold ways, into the specialist research fields of a conventional subject classification. Die Literatur ist auf den neuesten Stand gebracht worden.
Auch die Abbildungen wurden aktualisiert. This book represents a continuation and recapitulation of the previous work of Benedictow. It consists of a collection of papers concerning the controversies over the microbiological and epidemiological fundamentals of the plague epidemics in the past inspired by the European discussion conducted over the last 30 years in the Scandinavian research community.
Early Modern History, History of epidemics. This new edition has been substantially revised and expanded. New elements include discussions of rune stones as legal sources, Danish and Swedish conquests in the Baltic area, and the local administration in that area. The literature has been brought fully up to date. The figures have also been updated, such that the new edition is once again an indispensable reference for Scandinavian scholars and legal historians.
Karl Hausberger depicts the life and work of the thirteen Regensburg bishops who served between and The narrow area of temporal territorial authority stands out in stark contrast with the breadth of their area of spiritual jurisdiction, which extended across wide portions of Old Bavaria and the Upper Palatinate. Regensburg Bishopric; Germania Sacra; church history; modern history. Folge 1 und Marienfeld 3.
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Contemporary republics incorporated the perspectives of political reformist thinking during the early Enlightenment. Across Europe, they became the focus of a new rational analysis, which sought to sound out possibilities for the present and future. In the early modern period, marriages between Catholics and Protestants were discouraged by authorities, churches, and families, but rarely prevented. Conflicts arose about religious freedom and conversion, the scope of paternal power, and the upbringing of children.
Dagmar Freist describes the tensions between trans-denominational culture and gender relations, authoritarian confessional politics, freedom of religion, and coercion of belief. Der konfessionelle Dissens wurde Teil der politischen Kultur des Reiches und diente damit letztlich seiner Stabilisierung. As a result of the constitutional system created by the Peace of Westphalia, numerous conflicts became denominationally charged at various political levels, thus involving the upper-level institutions of the Holy Roman Empire i. Series bibliothek altes Reich 19 Ca.
In Speyer zeigte sich im Die Fortschreibung der Topoi diente zur Kompensation eines stadtgeschichtlichen Bedeutungswandels. This book investigates the image of Frankfurt that was developed in journalistic publications in the early modern period. When did this image arise, how did it develop, and what function did it possess? During the 16th and 17th centuries, Speyer was an organizational center for the Holy Roman Empire.
Speyer sat at the crossroads between the religious adversaries Mainz and Pfalz. Seit der Mitte des For the first time, the book examines the emergence of the Habsburgs as a leading ruling dynasty under Maximilian I from the perspective of its most important diplomats. It analyzes their influence on European power politics, while also describing their career paths and their role as cultural communicators.
This perspective from the field of communication history additionally offers insight into the process of diplomatic exchange during the era. In early modern Europe, starting in the midth century, peace treaties and other international treaties were compiled and published. This groundbreaking analysis of the creation, use, and reception of such compilations conclusively shows their critical role in the genesis, interpretation, and design of pre-modern foreign relations as well as the formation of the disciplines that studied them.
In this study, Oliver Malick reveals that the exact opposite was the case. Her skillful self-presentation as model widow, mother, and regent, and her targeted use of the rhetoric of friendship to foster client loyalty reveal Anne of Austria as a talented strategist and architect of an extensive politics of patronage. In both world regions a plurality of languages, religions, and types of belonging by birth was in premodern times matched by a plurality of legal systems and practices. This volume describes case-by-case the points where law and social diversity intersected.
Claudia Jarzebowski examines the relationship between childhood and emotion in the construction of social relationships. She questions anthropological preconceptions about what defines children and emotions and suggests they need to be reformulated. The essays in this volume examine portrayal of rule, power, law, and violence in medieval and early modern animal epics: The inquiry reveals responses to existing normative systems along with original reflections of the nature of politics. This volume offers a range of case studies and reflections on aspects of death and burial in postmedieval Europe.
What was the specific function of knowledge in early modern colonial Spain? Brendecke analyzes the connections between empiricism and power in the era of the Spanish Habsburgs and reveals the importance of knowledge in the process of nationbuilding. In a unique way, he succeeds in producing a political history that synthesizes approaches native to ideological, scientific, and communications history.
Monograph, English, 4th quarter What was the end of fortuna? Collection, English, 4th quarter This source edition with commentary provides multifaceted insight into the history of the 18th century trade with Asia, which was marked by competition and cooperation between companies. It includes a logbook from an English trading ship, diaries of English trade representatives, and a travel report by a Belgian ship crew. Edition, English, 2nd quarter This revised new edition provides an overview of various topics, including the early modern period from the end of the Thirty Years War to the French Revolution; Enlightenment as era or open-ended political project; changing awareness at the dawn of modernity; the rise of the knowledge society; state systems, colonialism, discourses of power and rule; and places, protagonists and luminaries of the European Enlightenment.
Introduction; textbook; study book. Studies of early modern scholasticism are experiencing a boom today. Both beginners and experts will find the tools in this volume for conducting independent research on the sources and cross-disciplinary insight regarding the state of research. Legal history; late scholasticism; textbook; natural law. This book presents an issue-focused history of humanism and the Renaissance in Germany in a European context, starting with an examination of Italy as a model and drawing on the broad conceptual and research guidelines established by Burckhardt and subsequent scholars.
The irenical tract De officio pii viri by Georgius Cassander — , its reception and its reprints highlight 16th-century erasmian humanist efforts for Church reunification in the Age of Reformation. Two contemporary translations, one in German by Georg von Cell and one in French by Jean Hotman, show us how De officio pii viri was adapted to the ongoing struggle for church peace in different parts of Europe. This collection of studies and documents draws upon extant documentation on the creation of this artwork. The biblical dramas of Sixt Birck show the ways and purposes by which Biblical texts were transformed into theater after the Protestant Reformation.
Darin handelt er in allegorischer Form die Ereignisse rund um die 2. Damit war der erste neulateinische Habsburgroman geboren. The romance is an allegorical treatment of the events surrounding the second Ottoman siege of Vienna starting in , and it propagandizes for the House of Habsburg. The work marked the birth of the Neo-Latin Habsburg novel. This edition presents the text with German translation and an introduction to the Neo-Latin Habsburg novel.
Monograph, German, 3rd quarter The early modern picaresque novel still fascinates us, not least because of its performative violations of the economic order. Narration and economy are engaged in a complex reciprocal interplay, a feature this study systematically explores for the first time as it examines the central texts of this genre. This edition fills the earlier gaps in the Nunciature reports from to In addition to the Papal diplomatic correspondence from the particularly dramatic period at the end of the Wallenstein era and subsequent military events, it also offers an overall view about a period of tense relations between the papacy and the Imperial Court of Ferdinand II.
Rom, German, Italian, 2nd quarter. Written by a team of internationally renowned scholars, this newly conceived handbook provides a reliable introduction to the life, work, and impact of Philipp Melanchthon. Collection, German, 2nd quarter XII, Seiten Geb. XIV, Seiten Geb.
In this, Rousseau is our true contemporary. Shorter Political Works] Kleine politische Schriften. The volume compiles shorter works by the political philosopher Edmund Burke that reflect both his liberal and conservative tendencies. They help to correct the one-sided image of Burke as an antiprogressive critic of the French Revolution, and clearly demonstrate the relevance of his arguments for the current debate on the relationship between political elites and the electorate, on global justice, and on the future of conservatism.
The New Discourses continue the volume published in The book brings together discourses from multiple disciplines and is therefore relevant to the history of the disciplines and scholarship. The 17 essays include such themes as the criticism of religion, polyhistory, polymathy, concepts of utopia, criticism and political anthropology, cosmography and technology, the problem of death in medicine, and the New World. Der Band rekonstruiert diese Konstellationen anhand von sprachtheoretischen, fachwissenschaftlichen und poetologischen Texten und zeigt so eine enge Vernetzung zwischen Dichtung, Poetologie und den genannten Disziplinen auf.
Islamische Theologie; Islamische Philosophie. His writings were long consulted in the training of religious scholars. In the 17th and 18th centuries, language and linguistic reflections were a central determinant of the discursive relationship between mathematics, physics, logic, and literature.
The volume traces these constellations, examining linguistic, technical, and poetological texts to reveal the close connections between the language of literature, poetology, and scientific discourse. Literary history; —; literature and the natural sciences; literature and mathematics. Monograph, German, 4th quarter Archeology still tends to be seen as a young science. In this two-volume history of archeology, the author fundamentally reshapes this notion and describes the emergence of archeological methods since antiquity. Volume 1 covers the theoretical foundations and the period from the classical age to History of science; pre- and protohistory; archeology; history of methodology.
Revisions in the History of Historiography] Historiographiegeschichtliche Revisionen. Volume 2 covers the period from the founding of the first national institutions in to Was the old notion of historia magistra vitae truly abandoned or did it live on with a new function? Socialism; Catholicism; occultism; secularization. Die Studien entwerfen ein neues Bild der historischen deutschen Studentensprache, indem authentische Texte im Zusammenhang mit der spezifisch studentischen Lebensform analysiert werden.
Die Analyse ist text- und handlungstheoretisch fundiert und zu verstehen als Beitrag zu einer pragmatischen Sprachgeschichte. Studentensprache; Sprachgeschichte; Pragmatik; Studentenlied. Series Studia Linguistica Germanica S. The studies develop a new historical image of language use by German students, juxtaposing an analysis of authentic texts with specific patterns of student life. A focus is placed on the characteristics of text types, in conjunction with patterns of interaction.
Under Social Democratic ministers of culture, universities in the Free State of Prussia made substantial achievements. In this volume, documentary sources explore basic issues such as finance, support for young scholars, and republicanization, as well as a selection of professorial appointments in six disciplines public law, economics, history, sociology, pedagogy, and physics. Between and , Prussian Catholicism became increasingly politicized. This shift is evidenced by the forms of piety manifested by many Catholics and their opposition to government policies that interfered with their religious life.
At the same time, the sources show that over time, government policy toward the Catholic Church was set more by ministers and less by monarchs. Catholicism; politicization 19th century ; Roman legacy; Jesuits; Prussia; history. Edition, German, 3rd quarter Jahrestag ein monumentales Denkmal gesetzt. In , Leipzig was the scene of the largest battle ever fought to date, and years later, a great monument was erected to mark its centennial. In this volume, renowned historians examine the course, consequences, and significance of the Battle of Leipzig and its reverberations across years.
Adel; Aristokratie; Elite; Deutsche Geschichte. Only quite recently has the nobility become a focus of social history. Heinz Reif, the pioneer and dean of German nobility research, analyzes the functions of the nobility in terms of rule, property, selfpresentation, political power, and adaptability.
In addition, the essays collected in this volume discuss broader questions in modern research on elites. Nobility; aristocracy; elites; German history. New ideals and arrangements in international relations facilitated a vision of independent nation states that enjoyed parity with Western powers. The study examines political, economic, and cultural plans for the future, as they were formulated during this time of change for India and China.
During the era of revolutions, the notion of federalism was renegotiated based on the experience of revolutionary upheaval. In a comparative study of historical transfer, the author shows the ways that the semantics of federalism circulated in transatlantic intellectual networks to be invoked and transformed in relation to conflicts in North America, Germany, France, and Switzerland. Im Spiegel seiner Biographie gewinnt man neue Perspektiven auf die Vielfalt der Geschichte des deutschen Protestantismus im Thus, the study interrelates research questions from religious and ideological history.
This study examines public opinion in the Napoleonic era in the area between Rhine and Maas — Series Pariser Historische Studien Ca. Global Repercussions of Violent Nationalistic and Racist Politics in the 19th and 20th Centuries] Globale Wechselwirkungen nationalistischer und rassistischer Gewaltpolitik im Eindringlicher und engagierter wurde diese Problematik noch nie dargestellt.
Beginning in the 19th century, the Balkans and colonies outside Europe became the laboratories for this form of national problem solving. After these instruments of violence struck back on the European continent. Does it involve an association between citizens as equals, a community of descent, or an underprivileged minority?
The Pan-German League was the first political group to publically declare war on the Weimar Republic at the beginning of Wolfgang Hardtwig examines the evolution of German historiography under conditions of freedom and dictatorship using the example of the University of Berlin; he describes the impacts of bourgeois emancipation, state integration, and National Socialism on German historical culture. Contemporary history as a specific form of reflection on the present took on a new quality during the period of upheaval around It emerged from the experience of accelerated political and economic change and the ensuing transformations of the media.
Contemporary history has focused on financial crises, revolutions, and geopolitical conflicts; its territory is in the border zone between historiography and journalism. In this volume, renowned authors from 25 nations seek to examine the European dimensions of military history in order to expand the narrow viewpoint of national history.
Transnational history; European history; military history. Welchen Anteil hatten daran die traditionellen Vorstellungen von dynastischer Herrschaftsberechtigung, Gottesgnadentum und Kriegserfolg? Sellin presents a masterful comparative pan-European study that weaves together political and cultural history to show how monarchy succeeded in ensuring its legitimacy across most of Europe over centuries. What parts were played by traditional notions of dynastic legitimation of rule, the divine right of kings, and military success?
How important were new attempts to gain legitimacy such as drawing up constitutions and social reform?
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This interdisciplinary volume explains the phenomenon of nationalism in 19th-century Europe through the prism of Graeco-Roman antiquity. Through a series of case studies covering a broad range of source material, it demonstrates the different purposes the heritage of the classical world was put to during a turbulent period in European history. Contributors include classicists, historians, archaeologists, art historians and others. In private-public regulatory structures, decisions are made collectively, with each side possessing consultative rights at the very minimum.
Such structures are often amalgams of purely private law relationships and public law administrative bodies. This volume presents their history and opens further research perspectives. February to October ]. It documents a number of newly attributed articles now published for the first time in a Marx-Engels edition.
Volume XV presents political texts written by Constant between and , a period characterized by the success of the liberal party and the great domestic crisis in France caused by the assassination of the Duke of Berry. Edition, French, 4th quarter Spatiality and temporality are treated as constructs in inextricable correlation with each other in contexts both historical and contemporary.
Jochen Oltmer presents a comprehensive overview of the background, forms, and consequences of migration to Germany since the 18th century. This completely updated and revised new edition extends to the present time and describes the latest status of research on migration, a field that has rapidly expanded since the s. The book concludes with a detailed thematically structured bibliography.
Most books on Mormonism focus, positively or negatively, on the early leading men and women of this American Millennarian religious movement. Interested scholars will find this volume timely and relevant. Andreas Kilcher Managing Editor: Palestine — and, after , Israel — has a singular status as a destination for German-Jewish immigrants. A special search function allows works to be found in various topic areas, such as politics, religion, literature, etc. Chronological searches are also possible, enabling the user to quickly obtain a comprehensive overview of political or cultural debates during specific time periods.
Culture; Zionism and Israel Studies. An indispensible source for academics studying German-Jewish literature, history, culture, Zionism, or the state of Israel. All prices are recommended retail prices only. Prices valid in Prices are subject to change. Online prices valid for unlimited simultaneous users. This study on the history of German-Jewish education traces the impact of the Hazkarat Zebi School in Halberstadt, the only private Jewish elementary school in the former province of Saxony.
The school followed the pioneering concepts of its founder, Hirsch Isaac Borchert, and its history reveals a unique commitment to reconciling religious tradition with attempts at modernization. Writings from to ] Schriften bis For the first time, this volume includes the complete works that the Orthodox rabbi and philosopher Alexander Altmann wrote before his emigration in German-Jewish religious philosophy; Scheler, Max. The once famous author Carry Brachvogel — led the life of a successful and emancipated pioneer among the cultural greats of Munich during a period of great upheaval — she was employed, a single mother, and Jewish.
Edition, English, German, 4th quarter German-Jewish immigration to Palestine and later to Israel represents an important chapter of Jewish culture, history, and literature. The bibliography extends across genres to collect the writings of immigrants published there between and Part 2 of the Biographical Handbook of Rabbis indexes the Rabbinate of the German Reich between and using Rabbinic Hebrew sources and material written in German and various other European languages.
The articles on over rabbis are arranged alphabetically and contain as complete information as possible on origins, education, career, family, religious position together with a bibliography of primary and secondary sources. Reference Work, German, 2nd quarter This book is first of its kind to deal with the interwar Jewish emigration from Germany in a comparative framework and follows the entire migration process.
It reveals the complex connection between the socio-economic profile varieties and the decision regarding emigration. The encounter between the immigrant groups and the different host societies produced diverse stories of presence and self-awareness despite the common GermanJewish heritage. The book deals with the stories of a few dozen Jews, Zionists, politicians, writers, poets, and public activists who passed away in the Diaspora, far and detached from the national homeland that they fought for before their death.
Aschkenas is a journal of Central and Eastern European Jewish history and culture. It primarily covers the period from the beginnings of Ashkenazi Judaism in late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages through the emancipation of the Jews in the 19th century. However, it also publishes contributions that extend beyond these temporal and geographical boundaries. Monograph, English, 1st quarter Persecution, Expulsion, Politicization, and the Substantive Reorientation of Linguistics] Verfolgung, Vertreibung, Politisierung und die inhaltliche Neuausrichtung der Sprachwissenschaft.
Ausgehend von dieser Darstellung wird die Entwicklung der Sprachforschung seit dem This book presents in detail the circumstances that prevailed in the field of linguistic research during the National Socialist era. It documents over individuals who were persecuted and driven into exile, and also describes the state of research in the discipline.
Starting from this presentation, it outlines the development of linguistic research since the 19th century. Wie kamen sie in die Schutzstaffel? How did they come to be in the SS? What actions did they carry out? Monograph, German, 2nd quarter Series Quellen und Darstellungen zur Zeitgeschichte 92 S. Inge Scholl wusste nichts vom Widerstand ihrer Geschwister. Series Quellen und Darstellungen zur Zeitgeschichte 94 S. War das Sammeln moderner Kunst verboten?
Das Buch widmet sich erstmalig diesen juristischen Aspekten. What faded from memory were the actual conditions of daily life for artists living under the regulations of the Reich Chamber of Fine Arts. Was collecting modern art banned? Scientific and Cultural Exchange between Italy and Germany, to ] Der wissenschaftlich-kulturelle Austausch zwischen Italien und Deutschland bis Die Studie zeichnet ein umfassendes Bild der Wehrmachtjustiz im bislang nahezu unbekannten Ersatzheer.
Namhafte Experten analysieren diese Netzwerke. Die Botschaft ist klar: This study paints a comprehensive picture of military justice in the Ersatzheer, or replacement army of the Wehrmacht, which had various homefront tasks. The author analyzes the operation of Ersatzheer military courts during the Second World War. The Berlin-Rome Axis was more than a purely military project. In science and art as well, there were intensive if sometimes troubled cooperation.
In this volume, renowned experts analyze these networks of exchange. One message is clear: Stuttgart; Lutz Danneberg, Humboldt-Univ. Its Creation, Establishment, and Instrumentalization, —]. This study on accommodation and resistance among female university students significantly enhances our understanding of the history of the University of Munich during the Nazi era. LMU Munich; Nazi era; female students. Entstehung, Etablierung und Instrumentalisierung — Diskurse, Akteure und die verzeichneten Kunstwerke stehen im Zentrum der Betrachtung.
It also casts light on discussions about the expectations regarding export protection in both the professional and public world and presents the process for requesting exemptions. Das NS-Plakat wird erstmals einer umfassenden kunsthistorischen Betrachtung unterzogen. For the first time, this book extensively examines Nazi propaganda posters through the lens of art history.
Containing color illustrations, it reveals National Socialist design strategies, imagery, and themes; traces changes in design principles; and presents the major Nazi poster artists who helped shaped the image of the National Socialist Party over its various developmental phases. Die Ergebnisse von O. He analyzes the intensive engagement with the book in Germany before and after , as well as in what later became the Allied states. In a non-Jewish German made the initial contact with Nazi officials that led to the establishment of a miniature Third Reich with local Nazi groups.
Heidemarie Wawrzyn, Jerusalem, Israel. Mussolini held audience on a daily basis as part of his efforts to manufacture a persona for public consumption. Between and many Germans joined the waves of visitors who sought to meet personally with El Duce, as demonstrated by fully preserved audience lists. The reports and recollections of German pilgrims to Rome, some published here for the first time, show how Mussolini meticulously staged his audiences to achieve maximum effect.
This book is also the story of a friendship rare in international politics between two unlikely partners unspoiled by political vicissitudes. This monograph provides the first comprehensive account of German-speaking refugees in Ireland — — where they came from, immigration policy towards them and how their lives turned out in Ireland and afterwards.
Extensive archive research in Ireland, Germany, England, Austria as well as the US and numerous interviews have made it possible to give an almost complete overview. The rich history of the German rabbinate came to an abrupt halt with the November Pogrom of Many rabbis obtained visas and came to Britain and participated in the re-shaping of the Anglo-Jewish landscape. They supported their fellow refugees with spiritual and pastoral care and founded institutions and organizations, such as the Leo Baeck College in London.
This created new impetus for Anglo-Jewry, an influence that can still be felt today. The work illustrates the contemporary contexts, dynamics, and intermediate stages of the political and social process that led to this unprecedented mass crime. It can be used as an academic aid or be read as a written monument to the murdered Jews of Europe: The edition comprises authentic testimony by persecutors, victims, and onlookers. These testimonies are furnished with academic annotations and the vast majority of them are published here for the first time in English. This volume documents the persecution of the Jews in Fascist Italy and in the lands of Yugoslavia, Greece, and Albania that were occupied by Germany and its allies.
Although the initial situation was different in each territory, from the summer of on, following the fall of Mussolini and the occupation of Italy, the Germans sought to implement the same policy of extermination everywhere. This is the first book documenting confidential protocols lately opened to the public. With the elaborate introduction by Yehiam Weitz, this book will serve as a basic textbook for an important chapter not only in Israeli and German history, but also in post-war history in general. Edition, German, 1st quarter This volume documents the persecution of the Jews in the three sovereign states of Slovakia, Romania, and Bulgaria between and The study discusses the history of the Jewish refugees within the Shanghai setting and its relationship to the two established Jewish communities, the Sephardi and Russian Jews.
Attention is also focused on the cultural life of the refugees who used both German and Yiddish, and on their attempts to cope under Japanese occupation after the outbreak of the Pacific War. Terminologische Probleme und Theorien der Antisemitismusforschung werden ebenso dargestellt wie Ereignisse und Sachkomplexe, Organisationen und Publikationen.
Each volume is dedicated to a specific topic and contains translated articles from the VfZ, previously unpublished articles, and commentaries. The first volume of the yearbook is devoted to a central theme of contemporary history. The volume is rounded out by commentaries for further discussion and a new reading of a key document. C, Seiten Ln. Universitas litterarum after ] Universitas litterarum nach Marburg Society of Scholars. Das Treffen mit Honecker steht im Zentrum des vorliegenden Bandes. Er erhellt die Deutschlandpolitik in der Endphase der sozialliberalen Koalition.
The 57 meeting minutes from collected here lend insight into constitutional and administrative history, and into issues of state and federal policy. Thanks to a meticulous introduction and commentary, the minutes are a key primary source on post-war Bavarian history. During —82, international arms control negotiations were at a stalemate, while the US was pursuing a policy of strength. The relationship between East and West Germany remained tense after an increase in the minimum obligatory exchange quota. The meeting with Honecker is the focus of this volume.
It casts light on Germany policy during the final phase of the Schmidt cabinet. West Germany; East Germany; edition; Germany policy. Beides hatte keine reale Basis. After the Cuban Missile Crisis, Khrushchev exercised more prudence and adopted a long-term perspective on furthering his goal of expelling the Western powers from Berlin and rendering a major defeat to NATO.
Neither goal was truly based in reality. This book is about the promotion of young artists after by the American occupation force. For the first time, it presents in detail the activities of the Prolog Group, whose members included prominent German artists, art historians, and members of the American occupation administration. Jahrhundert gab es in Europa Bordelle, in denen Prostitution staatlich kontrolliert wurde. Prostitution; Gesetzgebung; Demokratie; Gesundheitspolitik.
Until the 20th century there were brothels throughout Europe where prostitution was controlled by the state. The study examines factors in the German, French, and Italian parliaments that gave impetus to the abolition of this system. Besides hygienic, moral, and human rights concerns, the discussion also involved questions of security and foreign policy. Diesen noch ausstehenden Schritt unternimmt der vorliegende Band.
In recent decades, historians have turned their attention to the aristocracy. They have looked at the aristocracy in ancient times, the Middle Ages, and modernity, thus sharpening perspectives and enabling discussions that go beyond the boundaries of epoch. Yet a historiographical chronology of the contemporary aristocracy remains to be developed. This is the mission of the present study. The CSCE process was largely responsible for keeping alive East-West dialogue during the crisisridden period of the s and 80s.
France, in full solidarity with the interests of West Germany and with its own important motivations, helped to shape this process through its own disarmament initiative, which continued to have an impact well into the future. Die wechselvolle Geschichte der ostdeutsch-sowjetischen Wirtschaftsbeziehungen in den er und er Jahren wird erstmals durch zentrale Dokumente aus Moskauer Archiven veranschaulicht.
The vacillating and tense history of East German— Soviet economic relations in the s and 60s is revealed for the first time through key documents from Moscow archives. Series Schriften des Historischen Kollegs 96 Approx. Based on German Foreign Office records, Tim Szatkowski shows the interests pursued by the German federal government in its policy toward Turkey between and He describes that after the military coup in Ankara, Germany could not reconcile Realpolitik and human rights, and this resulted in major strains in German-Turkish relations due to policies regarding asylum and foreigners.
Restauranteurs from Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece, and Turkey brought with them an enticing if at times irritating foreignness to Germany. Their trattorias, grill restaurants, taverns, and snack bars transformed the face of German cities and villages, and at the same time, they became centers of sometimes conflictual intercultural communication.
It formulates a nuanced classification of these leading exile politicians, some burdened by Nazism, others active in the Nazi opposition. At the same time, it deals with efforts in the early days of West Germany in the s and 60s to deal with the Nazi past. What part do feature films play in creating our notions of history? Using the example of Dutch and German feature films about the resistance, the author shows how these long-neglected films succeeded in injecting competing interpretations of history into public commemorative culture in both the Netherlands and Germany. Resistance; film; commemorative culture.
Jahrhunderts gezeichnet und ein Profil des Schriftstellers als Intellektueller definiert. Jahrhunderts eine immer wichtigere integrationspolitische Rolle. Die mehrsprachige Quellenedition verdeutlicht die Rolle der christdemokratischen Parteien Europas als Mittler zwischen Staat und Gesellschaft im Sinne eines gemeinsamen Europas. Europe; Christian Democratic Party; international cooperation; history — Seventy prominent scholars from all over the world ask explosive questions: Essential reference for anyone who teaches about Israeli society, its history, and its future perspectives.
This pioneering handbook is presenting Israel in its intellectual controversies regarding Zionism, the making of the State of Israel and contemporary Israeli society. In more than a dozen of thematic sections, a wide range of perspectives is covered. Among the debated key topics are: Israel and Democracy; Religion and State; Zionism vs.
Post-Zionism; One People — one Nation? The handbook constitutes a major reference work for anyone dealing with contemporary Israeli society, comparative historical, political and sociological analyses, with phenomena of anti-Zionism and antiSemitism and with the Middle East conflict and its impact on Israel in general. It offers profound insights on how distinguished scholars from Israel and from other countries discuss on past, present and future of one of the most dynamic countries.
The handbook is often controversial and sometimes provocative, reflecting old and new challenges for Israel. Few in Israel and abroad attempted to deal with the complex personality of the woman who led Israel for five critical years. This biography is based on original sources, memoirs and interviews with many personalities. The author who served as spokesman for Golda Meir in — weaves a gripping story of one of the builders and leaders of the State of Israel. The State of Israel is the only Western state where the majority of lands are still owned by the State and by a public body related to it The Jewish National Fund.
At the root lies the divine command stating that the Land of Israel belongs to God. The book analyzes the history of the ideological, social and legal processes that took place, bringing about the unique phenomenon of an advanced capitalistic state whose lands are mostly state-owned. It provides an in-depth discussion of historical developments, political repercussions, and possible perspectives for peace with the neighboring Arab states.
The sixth volume includes papers presented at the Hamburg Colloquium. Presented bilingually — as always — the fifteen essays by prominent German and Russian historians and cultural scholars examine a broad range of cultural interactions between Germany and Russia. Collection, German, Russian, 2nd quarter Adelsforschung; Schlesien; Erinnerungskultur; Vergangenheitspolitik.
This book traces this tumultuous historical moment in the lives and memories of the nobilityof Silesia, a region ceded to Poland in Based on interviews with multiple generations of Silesian aristocratic family members and archival records, the study cautiously explores a sensitive subject in political remembrance while at the same time filling an important desideratum in contemporary research on aristocracy.
Ideology, Power Struggle, and Inertia]. Minderheiten; Drittes Reich; Auslandsdeutsche. The essays in this volume examine the relationship of National Socialist territorial and population policy to regional identities in the countries of Eastern Europe. Welche historischen Narrationen entstehen in dieser Umbruchsituation? In the last decades, previously secret documents on Jewish issues emerged from the newly opened Communist archives.
Edition, English, 3rd quarter The traditional industrial and mining metropolis of Katowice is being transformed into center of culture and technology. The study discusses this forward-looking transformation, examining how it was reconciled with historical tradition. What kinds of historical narrative arise in times of rapid change? How is historical meaning constructed and what are the functions of official history during times of structural change? Series Europas Osten im For many centuries Jews and Germans were economically and culturally of significant importance in Eastern Europe. Both groups had a similar background of origin and spoke related languages: This volume aims to explore the entanglements and interdependences of Jews and Germans in Eastern Europe from the late middle ages to the 20th century.
Moreover, the perception of Jews as Germans in this region is discussed in detail. Collection, English, 3rd quarter In the postwar years, American Jews obsessively engaged their East European past. In sermons, historical essays, literary criticism, political pamphlets, photography, and theater they made this past usable for their American present. The study traces this obsession to a sense of insecurity after the Holocaust and of opportunity in America. As American Jews redefined their identity, they created images that have shaped the community to this day. Rund Verlage hatten hier ihren Sitz: Until , Breslau was a major publishing capital in the German-speaking world.
Around publishing houses were headquartered there, including major publishers, academic presses, local publishers, a large number of Jewish publishers, and even a few Nazi presses.
This study presents the history of selected publishing houses based on extensive research in archival resources. Leipzig; Patrizia Blume, Univ. Ethnic Nationalism in Silesia and Frisia, —]. History, Culture, and Commemoration].
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Themen sind neben Ereignisgeschichte und medialer Vermittlung reformatorischen Gedankenguts in Wort und Schrift, Kunst und Architektur auch der Umgang mit diesem kulturellen Erbe bis in die Gegenwart. This monograph compares the Silesian homeland movement with the Greater Frisia movement and examines their protagonists, activities, ideologies, and effects. Silesia; Frisia; nationalism; Heimat movement; Folkish ideology. In addition to discussing historical events, the volume discusses the transmission of Reform ideology in word and text, art and architecture, and the ongoing impact of this cultural heritage up to the present day.
Reformation; Luther; Poland; Bohemia; Hungary. Zweiter Weltkrieg; Wehrmachtsoldaten; Nationalsozialistische Besatzungspolitik. The author draws on reports by contemporaries to vividly portray day-to-day wartime life for soldiers from Poland, their familial and political backgrounds, and the kinds of rejection they experienced. Er ist einem transnationalen und verflechtungsgeschichtlichen Ansatz verpflichtet und bietet eine Kontextualisierung der Geschichte der Russlanddeutschen.
Focusing on this threshold moment furnishes a rich picture of a complex literary situation. Namhafte Architekten planten in den ersten Jahrzehnten des Der Band bietet die erste Gesamtdarstellung zum Architekturgeschehen jener Zeit. The volume is the first collection devoted to the architectural history of that period.
Despite their highly heterogeneous history, German-Russians are often viewed as a closed and uniform group. The volume seeks to question this point of view and introduce new research perspectives. By adopting a research approach that is transnational with an emphasis on historical interconnections, it presents a more nuanced history of German-Russians.
Das muslimisch-christliche Zusammenleben in Kosovo war in den letzten Jahren der osmanischen Herrschaft durch eine Zunahme von Spannungen zwischen albanischen Muslimen und orthodoxen Serben, aber auch zwischen albanischen Muslimen und albanischen Katholiken gekennzeichnet. In the final years of Ottoman rule, the lives of Moslems and Christians in Kosovo were characterized by rising tensions not only between Albanian Moslems and Orthodox Serbs but also between Albanian Moslems and Albanian Catholics. This book examines the causes, manifestations, and dynamics of conflict and violence, while also showing those areas where day-to-day coexistence and cooperation remained possible.
Southeast Europe; Ottoman Empire; history of everyday life. Auf ganz neuer Grundlage wird untersucht, wie sich die jugoslawische Herrschaft trotz der gewaltsamen Inkorporierung von stabilisieren konnte, aber auch welche dauerhaften Konflikte sie schuf. Until this book was published, Kosovo remained a blank space in research on Socialist Yugoslavia, a surprising fact given that the largely Albanian province had been such a critical factor in both its stability and ultimate demise. Based on new sources, the author investigates the ways that Yugoslav rule stabilized Kosovo despite the violent nature of its incorporation in , and also shows the ongoing conflicts it created.
A comparison between Western European Catholic monasteries and Russian Orthodox monasteries during the late Middle Ages and Early Modern period reveals their common roots in the Western and Eastern monastic traditions. The adopted socialhistorical perspective illustrates how the world of the monastery is connected to secular spaces. This book investigates the emergence of the cosmopolitan idea of literature and its impact on the democratic reconfiguration of the European and non-European cultural and political spaces.
The birthplace of this idea is the traumatic experience of its designers among whom Voltaire, Kant, Herder, the Schlegel brothers and Goethe, resp. The Soviet Union shaped the 20th century like no other nation except the United States. In the s and 70s, it was justifiably viewed as the second world superpower. Hildermeier reviews the most important developmental phases, inflection points, and disruptions in Soviet history.
Series Oldenbourg Grundriss der Geschichte 31 3. Several decades have passed since the publication of the last comprehensive overview of agrarian history. During this time, this research field has undergone extensive expansion and diversification with respect to both content and methodology. In three volumes, this work, written by renowned scholars in the field, provides a new account of agrarian history from the Middle Ages to the modern era.
Agrarian history; agriculture; environmental history. The central question of the book is as follows: To what extent does the community present a challenge in the life of the individual? Well-known international Philosophers, historians, anthropologists, political scientists, theologians and sociologists attempted to find explications by intercultural comparison. Series Challenges of Life: Essays on philosophical and cultural anthropology 3 Approx. In welcher Form und unter welchen Voraussetzungen wurde die Apokalypse ab dem ausgehenden This book provides a historical perspective on a highly topical theme.
For the first time, it examines childhood experiences during war across epochs from antiquity to the present, considering commonalities, differences, continuities, and processes of change.